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Does your State Mandate National Registry Certification?
Yes--but not needed
No--but it should


       History and Physical Exam
1.Scene safe, PPE, resources needed
2.Introduction / Preliminary data
3.Primary survey (Quick determination of patients level of distress)
4.CC or goal of treatment
5.Hx of present illness, ( OPQRST), Associated symptoms, and pertinent Negatives
6.Past Hx
a.Pts perception of their own health
b.Childhood diseases (MMR, Chicken Pox, etc)
c.Adult Diseases/ Family Hx i.e. Diabetes, HD, HTN, Anemia, etc.
d.Psychiatric Illness
e.Accidents or injuries(serious)
f.Surgical Hx or Hospitalizations
7.Current Health Status
a.Current Medications
c.Tobacco use
d.Alcohol, Drugs  (CAGE Questions)
f. Lab Tests
h.Sleep Patterns
i. Home situation
j. Daily Life
k.Important Expieriances
l. Patients outlook
8.Review of systems
a.General ( Weight, Weakness, Fatigue, or fever)
b.Skin:  Any rash’s lumps or sores
c.HEENT:  Any Head Ache’s, Eye sight problems, Hearing problems including tinitus, Any               problems with nose, especially Hx of epistaxis, Does patient have frequent sore throats,           disphagia?
d.Neck: Any Lumps or pain
e.Resp; Difficulty breathing or hemoptesis
f. Cardiac: Chest Pain, Orthopnea, Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
g.GI:  Abdominal Pain, Black Tarry stools, Constapation, Diahrrhea, Hematemesis
h.Urinary:  Painful Urination, Urethral/ Kidney Pain, Polyuria, Disuria
i. Male Genitalia: Hernia/ Discharge/ STD
j. Female Genitalia/ LMP, Age of menarche or age of menapause, GPAL,                                                 Complications of Prgnancy, Birth Control, STDS
k.       Peripheral Vascular: Intermittent Claudication,  Leg Cramps, Varicose Veins, or Blood               clots
l. Musculoskeletal: Muscle or joint pain stiffness, arthritis, gout, or backache
m.     Nuero:  Hx of seizures, blackouts, fainting, numbness, tingling, parasthesia, tremors
n.Hematologic:  Hx of anemia
o.Endocrine:  Any hx of metabolic disfunction
p.Psychiatric: Depression, anxiety, other mental illnesses

                                             Physical Examination

1.Vital signs and pertinent laboratory and diagnostic or monitoring tests
2.General Statement
3.HEENT: Inspects head, Eyes:  EOMI, Visual Fields, PERRLA and consentual light  reflex,             Optalmoscopic (optic Disks),  Ears (Post auricular skin, Otoscopic),  Nose, Throat
4.Neck,( No JVD, NO lymphadenopathy, Trachea Midline,  Auscult for Bruits,                                  Palpates for step-off’s, No Thyromegally
5.Chest :   TREES, Palpate for symmetry and expansion and fremitus,  Auscultate,                             Percuss ,  Assess both anterior and posterior
6.Heart:  Evaluates Rate and rhythm, Evaluates pulses( symmetry and character),                        Auscultates all Fields.
7.Abdomen :  Inspect, Auscultate (No Tinkles or rushes, No Bruits), Palpate ( No                           tenderness), Deep Palpation (No Hepatospleenomegally,  no masses)
Atrial Junction
Asystole  (flatline)
NSR Normal Sinus Rhythm
Bundle Branch
Multi Focal P.V.C.'S
Premature Atrial
Premature Atrial
Sinus BradyCardia
Sinus Tach-a-Cardia
Super Ventricular Tach-a-Cardia
Ventricular Fibrillation  (Cardiac Arrest)
Ventricular Tachacardia
Paced Rhythm
Atrial Juction Rhythm
Atrial Fibrillation
Atrial Flutter
Super Ventricular Tachacardia
The best possible Score for a Glascow coma scale is:

a. eye opening 4; verbal response 5; motor response; 6
b. eye opening 3; verbal response 4; motor response; 5
c. eye opening 6; verbal response 5; motor response; 4
d. eye opening 5; verbal response 5; motor response; 5

What device transmits specific tones that other receivers will recognize?

a. repeater
b. encoder
c. modulator
d. transponder

Who has the ultimate authority over the paramedic in the field?

a. standing orders
b. protocols
c. on-line medical control
d. scene physician

Which of the following is not a method of transmission of the
Hepatitis virus?

a. blood
b. feces
c. saliva
d. sexual contact

Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor to hypothermia?

a. diabetes
b. old age
c. AMI
d. alcoholism

The normal PR interval is how many seconds

a. 0.2-0.4
b. 0.4-0.12
c. 0.1-0.20
d. 0.12-0.20

The first action a paramedic takes after receiving a medication order over the radio is to:

a. immediately administer the medication
b. repeat the patients vital signs
c. start an IV infusion
d. repeat the medication order
EMT National Training
A site in which you can take practice exams for State and National Regeristry Exams. 
There is a fee $$ for this service
EMT ‘s and Paramedic’s
While most will quickly understand the fact that a Paramedic is of a higher rank and more advanced training than an EMT (Emergency Medical technician), many people are unaware of the difference in the skills possessed by the two professional levels.

What can a paramedic do that an EMT can not do?

An EMT can perform CPR, oxygen administration, artificial ventilations, basic airway management, spinal immobilization, vital signs as well as bandaging and splinting, and provide jump starts to a stilled heart using an AED (Automatic Defibrillator)

A Paramedic performs all the skills of an EMT, with the inclusion of the following; a Paramedic is able to perform advanced airway management such as endotracheal intubations, obtain electrocardiograph readings (EKGs) with the training and skills to treat arrhythmias, I.V. initiation, cardioversion, defibrillation, deliver pain and cardiac medications, just to name a very few advanced skills.

A Paramedic has the training and skills that are a lot more advanced than a basic EMT in many ways. Paramedics obtain the most sophisticated training in equipment, medications and invasive therapies.

However, without basic life support (CPR) for example provided to a cardiac patient by EMT’s a Paramedics intervention is useless a patient will become brain dead with out circulation and breathing maintenance.

The differences between an EMT and a Paramedic in training and skills, when it comes to salaries are most often below $30,000.  Income ranges increase with dramatically between EMT’s and Paramedics who are employed by County run EMS agencies, Fire Department EMS Divisions, and Hospitals trauma centers that employ the two skilled levels.  A large amount of EMS personnel all over the United States are volunteers a critical role especially in rural communities.

The true fact is that both EMT’s and Paramedics are a critical role to Emergency Services that also includes Police and Fire Services.  EMS Medics provide vital life saving services that saves lives every day 365 days a year across America and many other Nations.
Heat is not often looked at as a major threat because it does not cause the destruction like tornadoes, floods, or hurricanes. Actually excessive heat causes many heath problems and deaths. They are more deadly than all other weather hazards, killing an average of 1,000 people per year in the U.S.

                                                                   Heat Index Defined?

The Heat Index provides a way to estimate how warm the air feels to exposed skin. It includes the effects of both temperature and moisture.

The amount of moisture is important because evaporation of water from your skin and the resulting cooling of your body is less on humid days than on dry days.

Dew points measure how much water vapor is present in the atmosphere. For example, when the dew point is 70 degrees the atmosphere has more than twice as much water vapor than when the dew point is 50 degrees.

The Heat Index was designed for shaded areas. When you are in full sunshine, exposed skin can feel up to 15 degrees warmer than the current Heat Index value.

Some of the deadliest and most well-known heat waves in the U.S. - June-September 1980 heat wave in the central and eastern U.S. killed an estimated 1,750 people, including 1,250 in the city of St. Louis alone.

July 1995 Midwest heat wave killed nearly 600 people over a five-day period in Illinois, mainly in Chicago. Temperatures there reached 106 degrees on July 13 and did not fall below 80 degrees for two consecutive nights.
Late-July, 2006 heat wave hit most of the U.S., killing at least 225 people.

                                                     Alerts issued during heat waves

An EXCESSIVE HEAT WATCH is issued 24 to 48 hours in advance, when possible. The watch is issued when the Heat Index will equal or exceed 105 degrees for 3 hours or more during the day, and remain at or above 80 degrees at night.

HEAT ADVISORY is issued about 24 hours in advance when the Heat Index will equal or exceed 105 degrees for at least 3 hours during the day, and remain at or above 80 degrees at night.

EXCESSIVE HEAT WARNING is issued about 24 hours in advance when the Heat Index will equal or exceed 115 degrees for 3 hours or more during the day, and remain at or above 80 degrees at night.

                                         Always check with your local weather for local alerts

In Seattle’s system issues a Heat and Health Watch if daytime highs are expected to reach the 90s.

                                              Signs of heat emergencies and treatments
Heat cramps: Muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is having trouble with the heat. Heat cramps occur when the heat index is above 90 degrees.

Heat exhaustion: Get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place. Remove or loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets. If the person is conscious, give cool water to drink. Make sure the person drinks slowly. Give a half glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not give liquids that contain alcohol or caffeine. Let the victim rest in a comfortable position, and watch carefully for changes in his or her condition.

Heat stroke: Heat stroke is a life-threatening situation. Help is needed call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number. Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool the body. Immerse victim in a cool bath, or wrap wet sheets around the body and fan it. Watch for signals of breathing problems. Keep the person lying down and continue to cool the body any way you can. If the victim refuses water or is vomiting or there are changes in the level of consciousness, do not give anything to eat or drink.

                                                         Precautions during hot weather
Slow down. Strenuous activities should be reduced, eliminated, or rescheduled to the coolest time of the day, usually early-morning or in the evening. Individuals at risk should stay in the coolest available place, not necessarily indoors.

Dress for summer. Lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing reflects heat and sunlight, and helps your body maintain normal temperatures.

Put less fuel on your inner fires. Foods (like proteins) that increase metabolic heat production also increase water loss.

Drink plenty of water or other nonalcoholic fluids and do not drink alcoholic beverages. Your body needs water to keep cool. Drink plenty of fluids even if you don’t feel thirsty. Persons who (1) have epilepsy or heart, kidney, or liver disease, (2) are on fluid restrictive diets, or (3) have a problem with fluid retention should consult a physician before increasing their consumption of fluids.

Do not take salt tablets unless specified by a physician. Persons on salt restrictive diets should consult a physician before increasing their salt intake.

Spend more time in air-conditioned places. Air conditioning in homes and other buildings markedly reduces danger from the heat. If you cannot afford an air conditioner, spending some time each day (during hot weather) in an air conditioned place like a movie theatre, mall or senior citizen center.

Don’t get too much sun. Sunburn makes the job of heat dissipation that much more difficult.

Resources: Brady EMS, BTLS, National Weather Service
Temperature Related Emergencies
FLU Fact’s and Information
Influenza is a contagious respiratory illness caused by viruses of the same name.

Symptoms include fever (usually high), headache, extreme tiredness, dry cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose and muscle aches.

The flu can result in illness ranging in severity from mild to life-threatening.

An estimated 10 percent to 20 percent of U.S. residents get the flu each year.

An average of 114,000 Americans will be hospitalized for flu-related complications each year.

Some 36,000 Americans die each year from flu complications.
What is Influenza (Flu)
                                                                         How does the vaccine work?

The flu vaccine is an inactivated viral vaccine. This means that the viruses predicted to be predominant during the current season are grown in chicken eggs, harvested, and then killed through chemical means. The vaccine is then purified and tested for safety. When taken by humans, the vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that fight off the viruses included in the vaccine.

                                                                   How effective is it?

Influenza vaccine effectiveness varies from year to year, depending on the degree of similarity between the virus strains included in the vaccine and those circulating during the flu season. The vaccine can prevent symptoms of flu infection in up to 90 percent of healthy young adults, but its effectiveness can be as low as 30 percent among very elderly, frail persons.

                                                           Who should get the flu vaccine?

Influenza shots are recommended for anyone who wishes to avoid the flu. It is specifically encouraged for people over the age of 65 years and all people who are at high risk for developing serious complications from the disease. These high-risk groups include children 6 months to 2 years and people with diabetes, immune suppression, severe forms of anemia and chronic diseases of the heart, lung or kidneys, including asthma. The vaccine is also recommended for women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during flu season, health care personnel, residents of nursing homes or other chronic-care facilities, children and teenagers who are receiving long-term aspirin therapy, and people who are in close contact with someone in a high-risk group.

                                                           Who should not get the flu vaccine?

People who have had previous vaccine-associated allergic reactions should not get the vaccine. Also, people with egg allergies should avoid immunization because the viruses used in the vaccine are grown in hen's eggs. The vaccine may be given in the presence of minor illnesses, but adults with acute febrile illnesses should usually wait until their symptoms abate.

                                                                     What are the side effects?

The flu vaccine causes no side effects in most people. Less than one-third of those who receive the vaccine have some soreness at the injection site, and about 5 to 10 percent experience mild side effects, such as headache or low-grade fever for about a day after vaccination. Rarely, an allergic reaction may occur among people who have severe allergies to eggs. Since the vaccine is not a live vaccine, it is not possible to get influenza from it.

                                                                    How often should you get it?

The vaccine should be taken every year because flu viruses are constantly mutating and each year the vaccine is updated to include the most current flu strains. The vaccine should also be taken annually because antibodies produced by a person in response to the vaccine decline over time.

                                                            When is the best time to get vaccinated?

The best time to get vaccinated is September to mid-November. However, if you miss your flu shot in November it is still not too late to obtain one. It takes about two weeks after vaccination to develop antibodies against the flu. In the United States, the flu season occurs from about November until April but peak activity usually occurs between late December and early March.

                                                                 Who should not get the flu vaccine?

People who have had previous vaccine-associated allergic reactions should not get the vaccine. Also, people with egg allergies should avoid immunization because the viruses used in the vaccine are grown in hen's eggs. The vaccine may be given in the presence of minor illnesses, but adults with acute febrile illnesses should usually wait until their symptoms subside.
1. If you're nauseated and vomiting or experiencing diarrhea, you can be almost certain you have:
A cold
The flu

2. When your child has a cold or flu, you should give him or her aspirin to relieve the symptoms.

3. The illness came on suddenly. Your body is achy, you're feverish, you have a dry cough, and you're really tired. You probably have:
A cold
The flu

4. How often should you be vaccinated for the flu?
Once is enough
Every year
Every five years
Every 10 years

5.  Taking antibiotics is the best way to treat a cold or the flu.
Flu Vaccine
Daves EMS Headquarters

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Copyright © 2001-2016 DAVE’S EMS HEADQUARTERS All Rights Reserved
In 1996, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) published the highly regarded consensus document titled the EMS Agenda for the Future, commonly referred to as the Agenda. This was a federally funded position paper completed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) in conjunction with the National Association of State EMS Directors (NASEMSD). The intent of the Agenda was to create a common vision for the future of EMS. This document was designed for use by government and private organizations at the national, state, and local levels to help guide planning, decision making, and policy regarding EMS. The Agenda addressed 14 attributes of EMS, including the EMS education system.

The Agenda provided the following overall vision for EMS in the future:
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) of the future will be community-based health management that is fully integrated with the overall health care system. It will have the ability to identify and modify illness and injury risks, provide acute illness and injury care and follow-up, and contribute to treatment of chronic conditions and community health monitoring. This new entity will be developed from redistribution of existing health care resources and will be integrated with other health care providers and public health and public safety agencies. It will improve community health and result in a more appropriate use of acute health care resources. EMS will remain the public's emergency medical safety net.
Source:  Excerpt from EMS Division of NHTSA Goals for Emergency Medical Services
Today's EMS education system is going thorough dramatic and profound changes. In response to extraordinary technological advancements and changes in societal expectations, education is expected to emphasize high-level cognition, problem solving, and the ability to deal with ambiguity and conflicting priorities. The public and employers expect graduates to be competent in a wide range of practical skills and have the ability to adapt to an ever-changing and complex environment.

The public and employers demand that health care education produce graduates who are responsive to the needs of the patient, have excellent communication skills, and are able to adapt to changes in their responsibilities. They demand graduates who are technically competent, socially conscious, and culturally sensitive. In addition to their traditional role as emergency care providers, EMS providers will need to be able to identify and modify illness and injury risks, provide acute illness and injury care and follow-up, and contribute to the treatment of chronic conditions and community health monitoring.
1. In what year was the first official EMS Week held?
2. Who designed the EMS Star of Life?
3. What are the names of the three resuscitation researchers who are
considered the fathers of modern CPR?
4. Who proposed the first two-tiered EMS response system?
5. The white paper that led to the creation of EMS, Accidental Death
and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society, was
published under which President?
6. What does EMTALA stand for?
7. What branch of the federal government houses the Emergency
Medical Services for Children office?
1. No cause for panic.
So far, swine flu isn't much more threatening than regular seasonal flu.
During the few months of this new flu's existence, hospitalizations and deaths from it seem to be lower than the average seen for seasonal flu, and the virus hasn't dramatically mutated. That's what health officials have observed in the Southern Hemisphere where flu season is now winding down.
Still, more people are susceptible to swine flu and U.S. health officials are worried because it hung in so firmly here during the summer -- a time of year the flu usually goes away.

2. Virus tougher on some.
Swine flu is more of a threat to certain groups -- children under 2, pregnant women, people with health
problems like asthma, diabetes and heart disease. Teens and young adults are also more vulnerable to swine flu.  Ordinary, seasonal flu hits older people the hardest, but not swine flu. Scientists think older people may have some immunity from exposure years earlier to viruses similar to swine flu.

3. Wash your hands often and long.
Like seasonal flu, swine flu spreads through the coughs and sneezes of people who are sick. Emphasize to children that they should wash with soap and water long enough to finish singing the alphabet song, "Now I know my ABC's..." Also use alcohol-based hand sanitizers.

4. Get the kids vaccinated.
These groups should be first in line for swine flu shots, especially if vaccine supplies are limited -- people 6 months to 24 years old, pregnant women, health care workers.  Also a priority: Parents and caregivers of infants, people with those high-risk medical conditions previously noted.

5. Get your shots early.
Millions of swine flu shots should be available by October. If you are in one of the priority groups, try to get your shot as early as possible.
Check with your doctor or local or state health department about where to do this. Many children should be able to get vaccinated at school. Permission forms will be sent home in advance.

6. Immunity takes awhile.
Even those first in line for shots won't have immunity until around Thanksgiving.
That's because it's likely to take two shots, given three weeks apart, to provide protection. And it takes a week or two after the last shot for the vaccine to take full effect.
The regular seasonal flu shot should be widely available in September. People over 50 are urged to be among the first to get that shot.

7. Vaccines are being tested.
Health officials presume the swine flu vaccine is safe and effective, but they're testing it to make sure.
The federal government has begun studies in eight cities across the country to assess its effectiveness and figure out the best dose. Vaccine makers are doing their own tests as well.

8. Help! Surrounded by swine flu.
If an outbreak of swine flu hits your area before you're vaccinated, be extra cautious.
Stay away from public gathering places like malls, sports events and churches. Try to keep your distance from people in general. Keep washing those hands and keep your hands away from your eyes, nose and

9. What if you get sick?
If you have other health problems or are pregnant and develop flu-like symptoms, call your doctor right away. You may be prescribed Tamiflu or Relenza. These drugs can reduce the severity of swine flu if taken right after symptoms start.

If you develop breathing problems (rapid breathing for kids), pain in your chest, constant vomiting or a fever that keeps rising, go to an emergency room.

Most people, though, should just stay home and rest. Cough into your elbow or shoulder. Stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever breaks. Fluids and pain relievers like Tylenol can help with achiness and fever. Always check with a doctor before giving children any medicines. Adult cold and flu remedies are not for them.

10. No swine flu from barbecue.
You can't catch swine flu from pork -- or poultry either (even though it recently turned up in turkeys in Chile). Swine flu is not spread by handling meat, whether it's raw or cooked.
Source:  CDC
Swine Flu Tips
This page was last updated: August 7, 2016
        HEAT WAVE
1.The EMS physician’s oversight of the patient care aspects of the EMS Systems is referred to as what? 

2.Orders given to the EMT-B by telephone or radio are called what?  

3.Attending conferences, watching EMS videos, or listening to lectures for the purpose of supplementing, or adding                          to, knowledge received in an original course is known as what? 

4.A reaction to death or dying where the patient says “Not me” is referred to as what? 

5.What does CISD stand for? Plus 1, what does it mean?

6.Organisms that cause infections, such as viruses and bacteria, are called what? 

7.Disposable gloves, eye shields, masks and gowns are known as what? 

8.The EMT-B’s ethical responsibilities and legal duties are called what? 

9. What is expressed consent? 

10.What’s the medical term for a Severe Allergic Reaction?

11.Consent based on the theory that the unconscious patient would approve of life-saving treatment is called what?

12.Unlawful touching of another person without consent is what?

13.Stopping the treatment with assuring the continuation of treatment at the same or higher level is referred to as                               what?

14.A series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health-                            care personnel is called what?

15.The change from a liquid to a gas is called what?

16.What does DNR stand for?  Plus 1, what does it mean?

17.Show me that correct anatomical position.

18.Show me your humerus.

19.Show me your tibia.

20.Show me your femur.

21.Show me your clavicle.

22.Show me your mandible.

23.Show me your patella.

24.Show me your mid-axillary line.  Mid-armpit to the ankle

25.Patient lying on it’s back is said to be in what position?

26.Patient lying on it’s front is said to be in what position?

27.How many quadrants are there in the abdomen?

28.The type of muscle tissue that controls the flow of materials through the GI System is what?

29.A leaf-shaped valve that prevents food from entering the trachea is what?

30.The structure containing the voice box is what?

31.Your windpipe is call what?

32.As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, the chest cavity decreases in size, causing what?

33.The major artery that carries blood away from the heart is called what?

34.The major artery that carries blood in the thigh is called what?

35.The right atrium does what?

36.Name the 2 main veins that bring blood into the heart. 

37.The fluid that carries blood cells and nutrients is what?

38.The clotting agent in blood are called what?

39.A symptom is what?

40.What carries the oxygen to the muscles and the carbon dioxide away to the lungs? 

41.The pressure on the walls when the left ventricle contracts is called what?

42.The nervous system is subdivided into what??  Central and peripheral nervous system

43.An emergency move for the patient found in the sitting position in an automobile is called what?

44.A position of comfort for a patient with difficulty breathing is likely to be in what position?

45.When treating a patient in shock, what’s the position that you should put this patient in?

46.In an adult patient, a pulse rate of 100 or higher is called what?

47.Your unconscious patient is lying on the ground, you suspect trauma, and how do you open the airway?

48.What is the lpm allowed for Nasal Cannula?

49.What does “constriction” mean?

50.What is the lpm allowed for a Simple Mask?

51.What is the lpm allowed for Non-Rebreather?

52.What does COPD stand for?

53.What does CHF stand for?

54.Of the following IV solutions, which one are we NOT allowed to monitor?

55.Any time a patient has fallen more than the patient’s height, the fall should be considered severe?

56.What does AVPU stand for?

57.When performing the initial assessment of a responsive adult patient, you should assess the pulse. 

58.If a patient is in shock, you would expect the skin to be what?

59.The purpose of the initial assessment is to identify what?

60.What does “T” stand for in “DCAP-BTLS”?

61.What clue tells you that your patient has a “flail chest” segment?

62.A detailed physical exam is typically performed when?

63.What type of patient most frequently gets a detailed physical exam?

64.What is the “clear” fluid that is typically seen with massive trauma to the head?

65.What medical is most likely prescribed for a patient with chest pain?

66.Your 77-year-old male patient is unresponsive, but breathing.  You should obtain pertinent patient information                                 from whom?
67.Ongoing assessments for stable patient should be repeated every minutes.

68.You made an error while writing your patient care report.  How should the error be corrected?

69.Name the medication given for diabetic hypoglycemia. 

70.Name the medication given for Anaphylaxis Reactions. 

71.Name the medication given to treat Hypoxia. 

72.Nitroglycerin is a medication that is given how?

73.In the memory aid “OPQRST” what does the “P” stand for?

74.What is the generic name for the medication in the prescribed inhaler? 

75.Hypoglycemia is a term for diabetic condition means what?

76.A common symptom of poison ingestion is?

77.Finish this sentence: You’re not dead until you are _______. 

78.Rough handling of a hypothermic patient may cause what?

79.The muscular abdominal organ where the fetus develops is called what?

80.The “bag of water” that surrounds the developing fetus is also called the what?

81.The most common abnormal delivery of a baby is what?

82.A steady flow of dark red blood from a wound is bleeding for what?

83.Your best clue to the possibility of internal bleeding is what?

84.The outermost layer of skin is called what?

85.An injury in which flaps of skin and tissues are torn loose or pulled off completely is called what?

86.What does PASG stand for?

87.What does MAST stand for?

88.A burn in which all layers of the skin are damaged is sometimes called what?

89.The major problem cause by electrical shock is often not the burn itself, but what?

90.What is it called when the lung collapses and is filled with air?

91.What is it called when the lung collapses and is filled with blood and air?

92.What’s the term for “touching or feeling”?

93.How many cervical bones are there?

94.How many Lumbar bones are there?

95.How many Thoracic bones are there?

96.The medical term for “tailbone” is what?

97.What is the compression to breath ratio for Adult CPR?

98.What is the compression to breath ratio for Infant CPR?

99.What is the compression to breath ratio for Child CPR?

100.How many compressions are we shooting for in a minute with Adult CPR?

101.How many compressions are we shooting for in a minute with Infant CPR?

102.In infants and children, the primary cause of cardiac arrest is what?

103.Which of the following is the most common cause of seizures in infants?

104.You suspect that your pediatric patient has been physically abused.  The first person you should inform of your                                suspicions should be who?

105.Why do we carry aluminum foil on the ambulance?

106.After each call, prior to putting the ambulance back in service, you should always do what?

107.What does MCI stand for? Plus 1, what does it mean?

108.What is the “Rule of Thumb”?

109.These produce substances that help the body fight infections?

110.A blue or gray color resulting from a lack of oxygen in the body. 

111.A permanent surgical opening in the neck through which a patient breathes. 

112.Give an example of a blunt force trauma.

113.Give an example of a penetrating trauma.

114.What does ALOC abbreviated for?

115.What’s the term for “listening”?

116.What’s the term for “touching or feeling”?

117.A sign is what?

118.What does “dilate” mean?

119.The black center of your eye is called what?

120.A surgical opening in the wall of the abdomen with a bag in place to collect excretions from the digestive                                      system is called what?

121.The grating sound or feeling of broken bones rubbing together. 

122.Recording the changes in a patient’s condition over time is called what?

123.A device that picks up signals from a lower-power unit, such as a mobile or portable radio and re-transmits                                     them at a higher power is called what?      

124.What does “Contraindications” mean?

125.What are the four R’s?

126.Accumulation of fluid in the lungs is known as what?

127.Accumulation of fluid in the feet or ankles. 

128.What does AMI stand for?   Plus 1, what does it mean?

129.What is apnea?

130.What does CVA stand for?   Plus 1, what does it mean?

131.The alcohol-withdrawal may experience seizures, a.k.a. know as what?

132.The direct transfer of heat from one material to another through direct contact is what?

133.Death of person due to a body position that restricts breathing for a prolonged time. 

134.A condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall; a cause of prebirth bleeding. 

135.The Golden Hour refers to what?

136.What is a closed wound?

137.An open chest wound in the air is “sucked” into the chest wound is called what?
1 What is the main purpose of raising the feet and legs of a casualty who is in shock?
A  to help breathing.
B  to prevent nausea and vomiting.
C  to increase blood supply to vital tissues.
D  to slow down the heart beat.

As part of first aid to control severe external bleeding, you should:
A  keep the casualty moving to improve circulation.
B  lower the injured part below the level of the heart.
C  keep changing all blood soaked dressings.
D  apply direct pressure to the bleeding part.

To prevent further contamination and infection of a wound, you should cleanse the surrounding skin by:

A  wiping away from the edges of the wound.
B  wiping lightly over the edges of the wound.
C  swabbing in circular motions around the wound.
D  swabbing from one side of the wound to the other.

4 Force on a joint may cause it to "pop out" of its socket. This injury is called a:
A  dislocation.
B  sprain.
C  strain.
D  fracture.

Which statement best defines the term "signs" as used to assess a casualty?
A  Indications of illness or injury as seen by the first aider.
B  Sensations felt and described by the casualty.
C  Causes of the accident or illness as established by the first aider.
D  Facts given by the casualty and bystanders.

Leaving an unconscious person on his back is dangerous because in this position:
A  the airway may become obstructed.
B  vomiting is more likely to occur.
C  breathing is more difficult.
D  circulation may become impaired.

7 First aid for a conscious choking child, who cannot cough or speak, is to:
A  finger-sweep the mouth and attempt to ventilate.
B  give back blows followed by chest thrusts until successful or he becomes unconscious.
C  give abdominal thrusts until successful or he becomes unconscious.
D  open the airway and attempt to ventilate

8 if vomiting occurs during artificial respiration, you should:
A  place the casualty into the recovery position, allow vomit to drain and stop AR.
B  finger-sweep the mouth, give abdominal thrusts and continue AR.
C  turn the casualty on the side, clear the mouth and reassess breathing and signs of circulation.
D  roll the casualty face-down and give back blows before resuming AR.

9 when giving mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration to an adult casualty, you should ventilate every:
A  3 seconds.
B  5 seconds.
C  7 seconds.
D  9 seconds.

10 Obtaining a detailed history of a patient and performing a thorough physical exam is known as:
A  initial assessment
B  windshield assessment
C  secondary survey
D  primary assessment

11 Immediately after opening a casualty's airway, you should:
A  give two short ventilations
B  assess for a pulse
C  initiate CPR
D  look, listen and feel for breathing

12 The best way to care for a flail chest is to:
A  leave chest uncovered and transport immediately
B  stabilize the chest with a bulky trauma pad or pillow
C  apply an occlusive dressing
D  tape the front and lateral sides of the chest tightly

13 The actual forces that cause a casualty's injuries is called the:
A  index of suspicion
B  mechanism of injury
C  trauma incident
D  none of the above

14 A common cause of airway obstruction in the casualty with an altered mental status is:
A  Food.
B  The tongue.
C  Dentures.
D  Secretions.

15  According to the age group guidelines used for the techniques in AR, CPR and choking, a casualty is considered a child when he is:
A  over eight years of age.
B  under one year of age.
C  from one to eight years of age.
D  from one to twelve years of age.

16 At which rate should you give chest compressions to a child?
A  About 100 times a minute
B  About 60 times a minute
C  About 80 times a minute
D  About 120 times a minute

17 Which one of the following techniques would prevent the tongue from blocking the airway?
A  Chest compressions.
B  The head-tilt chin-lift manoeuvre.
C  The finger-sweep manoeuvre.
D  Abdominal thrusts.

18 When caring for a casualty, which of the following types of blood would pose a hazard to you?
A  Arterial blood
B  Venous blood
C  Capillary blood
D  All of the above

19 You find a non-breathing casualty who is bleeding around the mouth and you suspect a fractured jaw. You should:
A  gently hold the jaw in place while giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
B  use the mouth-to-nose technique of artificial respiration.
C  turn the casualty into the recovery position before giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
D  Wait until the ambulance arrives with specialized equipment.

20 Deoxygenated blood is returned from the body into which chamber of the heart?
A  Right atrium
B  Left ventricle
C  Left atrium
D  Right ventricle
What is MRSA?
MRSA stands for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

MRSA is a type of Staphylococcus bacterium that has developed resistance to the antibiotics usually used to treat the infection including methicillin, ampicillin and other penicillin’s.

How do individuals get MRSA?

Individuals "get" MRSA is by contact (direct or indirect) with a person who either has a wound infection, an infection of the respiratory tract, or who is colonized with the bacteria. It can also be spread by Stethoscopes not cleaned between use.

Precautions Medics should follow when they go home?

Hand washing is the most important measure. Hands should always be washed after using the toilet, using household hand soap for at least 15 seconds. If you require continued care at home, you, or whomever is caring for you, should wear gloves when handling body fluids (urine, wound drainage, etc.), when providing care, or contacting surfaces contaminated with body fluids. Disposable items soiled by body fluids (dressings, diapers, used gloves, etc) should be placed in the trash. Good cleaning with soap and water followed by a household disinfectant such as bleach is adequate to disinfect surfaces contaminated with MRSA. Laundry can be done in accordance with manufacturer’s directions using standard detergent. Dishes and utensils can be washed as usual.

1.        Medical Direction
2. On-line medical direction
3. Continuing Education
4. Denial
5. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
6. Pathogens
7. Personal Protection Equipment
8. Duty to Act
9. When the patient gives you oral okay
10.       Anaphylaxis
11.Implied consent
14.The Good Samaritan laws
16.Do Not Resuscitate 
17.Show me that correct anatomical position.
18.Show me your humerus.
19.Show me your tibia.
20.Show me your femur.
21.Show me your clavicle.
22.Show me your mandible.
23.Show me your patella.
24.Show me your mid-axillary line.  Mid-armpit to the ankle
33.Aortic Artery
34.Femoral Artery
35.Collects the blood from the body to be pumped into the right ventricle.
36.Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
39.What the patient tells you.
40.Red Blood cells
42.Central and peripheral nervous system
43.Rapid Extrication
44.Sitting up
48.1-6 lpm
49.To get smaller
50.10-12 lpm
51.12-15 lpm
52.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
53.Congestive Heart Failure
54.D5W, NS, LR, D10W
55.3 x
56.Alert, responds to Verbal or Painful stimuli or the patient is Unresponsive.
58.Life-threatening injuries
60.Paradoxical motion
61.En route to the hospital
63.Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF)
65.Bystanders or family members
67.Draw one line through the error and initial it
68.Oral Glucose
74.Low Blood Sugar
76.Warm and Dead
77.Ventricular Fibrillation
79.Amniotic Sac
80.Breech delivery
82.Mechanism of injury
85.Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garments
86.Military Anti-Shock Trousers
87.Third-degree burn
88.Cardiac or Respiratory Arrest
Respiratory Failure
The Emergency Department Staff
To cover newborns
Clean up blood, vomitus, and other body fluids
You should be able to cover the scene with your thumb, if not you are too close.
White Blood Cells

Altered Level of Consciousness

What you see
To get bigger
When it is not appropriate and may be harmful to administer a drug to a patient.
Right Dose, Right Route, Right Medication, Right Administration
Pulmonary Edema
Pedal Edema
Acute Myocardial Infarction 
No breathing
Cerebral Vascular Attack 
Delirium Tremens (DT’s)
Positional Asphyxia
Abuptio Placentae
From the time of the trauma to the doors of surgery
An internal injury with no open pathway from the outside.
Sucking chest wound.
Babinski’s Sign
Bundle of His
Chemical Transportation Emergency Center
Present at Birth
Define Compartment Syndrome.
Decorticate posturing
Degloving injury
Rigor Mortis
As you approach your patient, he does not open his eyes. When you begin to talk to him, he opens his eyes and answers your questions appropriately. He is not able to move his extremities. What is his Glasgow Coma Scale Score       9

The second cervical vertebra about which the heads rotates from side to side is what?         Axis

What is the name for a patient suffering profound difficulty in swallowing due either or a medical or traumatic (PTSD) post traumatic stress disorder.             Dysphasia

What is an anxiety disorder characterized by an obsessive, irrational, and intense fear of a specific object or activity
     Augorha Phobia

What is another name for German measles?        Rubella

Whats does SID mean?       Sudden Infant Death

Whats does CAD stand for?       Computer Aided Dispatch

Which president signed the bill that created EMS and which U.S. Agency over see’s Emergency Medical Services. What did the bill include?
1 President Lyndon Johnson 2 The National Highway Safety & Transportation Administration (NHSTA) 3 Allows for each State to create its own laws pertaining to EMS